Musculoskeletal Disorders among Iranian Coal Miners at 2014

Mashallah Aghillinejad, Elaheh Kabir Mokamelkhah, Mohammad Nassiri-Kashani, Mohammad Kazem Nouri, Narges Noorian, Amir Bahrami-Ahmadi


Some factors such as stooping posture and frequent kneeling in miners can increase prevalence of their musculoskeletal disorders Present study was performed for assessment of MSDs prevalence among Iranian coal miners and finds its relationships with some their characters including age, work experience and body mass index.
Participants in the persent cross sectional study, were 505 coal miners which selected among Iranian coal miners by simple random method. Data of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) gathered by Standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list.
Findings of persent study showed that 56.1% and 66.5% of study miners claimed one of the MSDs complaints during last week and in the last year respectively. Lumbar, Knee(s) and Back had most common MSDs prevalence at last week and year. MSDs prevalence had significant association with age (P≤0.02) and non-significant association with BMI (P≥0.8) of workers.
MSDs in Iranian coal miners were happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies in the workplaces must be focussed for elimination of environmental hazards such as apposition at the time of work, manual handling of heavy loads.


Coal Miner; Ergonomic Program; Musculoskeletal Disorders Prevalence; Nordic Questionnaire, Occupational Medicine

Full Text:



Woolf AD, Akesson K. Understanding the burden of musculoskeletal conditions. The burden is huge and not reflected in national health priorities. BMJ. 2001;322(7294):1079-80.

Spielholz P, Silverstein B, Morgan M, Checkoway H, Kaufman J. Comparison of self-report, video observation and direct measurement methods for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder physical risk factors. Ergonomics. 2001;44(6):588-613.

Hagberg M. WMSDs: Conceptual framework. In: Kuorinka I, Forcier L, editors. Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs): A reference book for prevention London: Tayler & Francis; 1995. p. 5-16.

Bernard B. Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors: A critical review of epidemiologic evidence for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, upper extremity, and low back. Washington D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office (DHHS/NIOSH; 1997.

Linton SJ, Kamwendo K. Risk factors in the psychosocial work environment for neck and shoulder pain in secretaries. J Occup Med. 1989;31(7):609-13.

Aghilinejad M, Javad Mousavi SA, Nouri MK, Ahmadi AB. Work-related musculoskeletal complaints among workers of Iranian aluminum industries. Archives of environmental & occupational health. 2012;67(2):98-102.

Aghilinejad M, Choobineh A, Sadeghi Z, Nouri M, Bahrami- Ahmadi A. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Iranian Steel Workers. . Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2012;14(4):198-203.

Sharrard WJ. Aetiology and pathology of beat knee. Br J Ind Med. 1963;20:24-31.

Myllymaki T, Tikkakoski T, Typpo T, Kivimaki J, Suramo I. Carpet-layer's knee. An ultrasonographic study. Acta Radiol. 1993;34(5):496-9.

Manninen P, Heliovaara M, Riihimaki H, Suoma-Iainen O. Physical workload and the risk of severe knee osteoarthritis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28(1):25-32.

Punnett L, Fine LJ, Keyserling WM, Herrin GD, Chaffin DB. Back disorders and nonneutral trunk postures of automobile assembly workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1991;17(5):337-46.

Lawrence JS. Rheumatism in coal miners. III. Occupational factors. Br J Ind Med. 1955;12(3):249-61.

Kuorinka I, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, Vinterberg H, Biering-Sorensen F, Andersson G, et al. Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Appl Ergon. 1987;18(3):233-7.

Andersson K, Karlehagen S, Jonsson B. The importance of variations in questionnaire administration. Appl Ergon. 1987;18(3):229-32.

Choobineh A, Lahmi M, Shahnavaz H, Jazani RK, Hosseini M. Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2004;10(2):157-68.

Crawford J. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Occupational Medicine. 2007;57:300-01.

Bergqvist U, Wolgast E, Nilsson B, Voss M. The influence of VDT work on musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomics. 1995;38(4):754-62.

Porter J, Gyi D. The prevalence of musculoskeletal troubles among car drivers. Occup Med (Lond). 2002;52:4-12.

Macdonald F, Waclawski E. Upper limb disorders among coopers in the Scotch whisky industry. Occup Med (Lond). 2006;56:232–6.

Hagen KB, Magnus P, Vetlesen K. Neck/shoulder and low-back disorders in the forestry industry: relationship to work tasks and perceived psychosocial job stress. Ergonomics. 1998;41(10):1510-8.

Ohlsson K, Attewell RG, Johnsson B, Ahlm A, Skerfving S. An assessment of neck and upper extremity disorders by questionnaire and clinical examination. Ergonomics. 1994;37(5):891-7.

Palmer K, Smith G, Kellingray S, Cooper C. Repeatability and validity of an upper limb and neck discomfort questionnaire: the utility of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. Occup Med (Lond). 1999;49(3):171-5.

Gallagher S, Moore S, Dempsey PG. An analysis of injury claims from low-seam coal mines. J Safety Res. 2009;40(3):233-7.

Svane O. National prevention of musculoskeletal workplace injury: Denmark--a summary. Ergonomics. 1987;30(2):181-4.

Borghouts JA, Koes BW, Vondeling H, Bouter LM. Cost-of-illness of neck pain in The Netherlands in 1996. Pain. 1999;80(3):629-36.

Burdorf A, Sorock G. Positive and negative evidence of risk factors for back disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23(4):243-56.

Lemasters GK, Atterbury MR, Booth-Jones AD, Bhattacharya A, Ollila-Glenn N, Forrester C, et al. Prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders in active union carpenters. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55(6):421-7.

Liira JP, Shannon HS, Chambers LW, Haines TA. Long-term back problems and physical work exposures in the 1990 Ontario Health Survey. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(3):382-7.

Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment e-ISSN: :2345-5535 Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran