A Review on Factors Affecting Large Truck–Involved Crashes

Milad Safar, Khaled Zoroufchi Benis, Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh, Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani, Mohammad shakerkhatibi, Nazanin Masoudi


Crashes involving large trucks have a significant association with increasing fatalities or serious injuries. Identifying the factors affecting large trucks crashes can be helpful in reducing the number of crashes and corresponded consequences. The purpose of this review was to appraise the published papers on factors affecting large truck-involved crashes. Data were compiled through searching Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science using keywords included “large truck and accident severity”, “large truck and accident”, “large truck and crash severity”, “large truck and crash”, “large truck and fatal accident”, “large truck and fatal crash”, “large truck and injury”, and “large truck and collide”. The accomplishment process had two steps: excluding unrelated studies and reviewing related ones to select papers meeting the inclusion criteria. According to data collected, 31 papers achieved the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that speed, driver age, location type, collision type, seat belt wearing, light condition, vehicle technical condition, time, road surface condition, and accident type were common factors in the included papers. From the perspective of our study, speed, location type, and light condition seem to be the most frequent factors in crashes involving large trucks. The present study helps to access the studies on factors affecting the large truck-involved crashes. Thereby, the experts can perform measures to decrease the probability and severity of traffic accidents.


Crash; Large Truck; Large Truck-Involved Crashes; Severity

Full Text:



Dong C, Richards SH, Huang B, Jiang X. Identifying the factors contributing to the severity of truck-involved crashes. Int. J. Inj. Contr. Saf. Promot. 2015;22(2):116-26.

Chang LY, Chien JT. Analysis of driver injury severity in truck-involved accidents using a non-parametric classification tree model. Saf. Sci. 2013;51(1):17-22.

FMCSA. Pocket Guide to Large Truck and Bus Statistics 2017. Available at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/safety/ data-and-statistics/commercial-motorvehicle-facts.

FMCSA. Large truck and bus crash facts 2014. Avilable at: https://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/sites/fmcsa.dot.gov/ files/docs/Large-Truck-and-Bus- Crash-Facts.

NHSTA. Traffic Safety Facts 2014. Avaliable at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811868.

FMCSA. Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts 2016. Avilable at: https://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/safety/data-and-statistics/large-truck-and-bus-crash-facts.

Zaloshnja E, Miller TR. Costs of large truck-involved crashes in the United States. Accid Anal Prev. 2004;36(5):801-08.

Zaloshnja E, Miller T. Unit costs of medium and heavy truck crashes. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Washington DC; 2007.

Razzaghi A, Soori H, Kavousi A, Abadi A, Khosravi A, Alipour A. Risk factors of deaths related to road traffic crashes in World Health Organization regions: A systematic review. Archives of Trauma Research. 2019;8(2):57-86.

Al-Bdairi NSS, Hernandez S. An empirical analysis of run-off-road injury severity crashes involving large trucks. Accid Anal Prev. 2017;102:93-00.

Chirachavala T, Cleveland DE, Kostyniuk LP. Severity of large-truck and combination-vehicle accidents in over-the-road service: a discrete multivariate analysis. Transp. Res. Rec. 1984;975:23-36.

Chira-Chavala T, Cleveland DE. Causal analysis of accident involvements for the nation's large trucks and combination vehicles. Transp Res Rec. 1985;1(m22):z21.

Dong C, Clarke DB, Richards SH, Huang B. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: An exploratory analysis. Accid Anal Prev. 2014;62:87-94.

Dong C, Dong Q, Huang B, Hu W, Nambisan SS. Estimating factors contributing to frequency and severity of large truck-involved crashes. J Transp Eng, Part A: Syst. 2017;143(8): doi.org/10.1061/ JTEPBS.0000060.

Islam M. Multi-vehicle crashes involving large trucks: A random parameter discrete outcome modeling approach. J Transp Res Forum. 2015;54(1):77-03.

Islam M, Hernandez S. Large truck-involved crashes: exploratory injury severity analysis. J Transp Eng. 2013;139(6):596-04.

Islam S, Jones SL, Dye D. Comprehensive analysis of single-and multi-vehicle large truck at-fault crashes on rural and urban roadways in Alabama. Accid Anal Prev. 2014;67:148-58.

Khorashadi A, Niemeier D, Shankar V, Mannering F. Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large-trucks: an exploratory analysis. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37(5):910-21.

Kotikalapudi S, Dissanayake S. Study of characteristics and evaluation of severity affecting factors associated with large-truck crashes. Adv Transp Stud. 2013;29:19-34.

Lemp JD, Kockelman KM, Unnikrishnan A. Analysis of large truck crash severity using heteroskedastic ordered probit models. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43(1):370-80.

McKnight AJ, Bahouth GT. Analysis of large truck rollover crashes. Traffic Inj Prev. 2009;10(5):421-26.

Osman M, Paleti R, Mishra S, Golias MM. Analysis of injury severity of large truck crashes in work zones. Accid Anal Prev. 2016;97:261-73.

Qin X, Wang K, Cutler CE. Logistic regression models of the safety of large trucks. Transp Res Rec. 2013;2392(1):1-10.

Teoh ER, Carter DL, Smith S, McCartt AT. Crash risk factors for interstate large trucks in North Carolina. J Safety Res. 2017;62:13-21.

Zhu X, Srinivasan S. A comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the injury severity of large-truck crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2011a;43(1):49-57.

Zhu X, Srinivasan S. Modeling occupant-level injury severity: An application to large-truck crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2011b;43(4):1427-37.

Al-Bdairi NSS, Hernandez S. Comparison of contributing factors for injury severity of large truck drivers in run-off-road crashes on rural and urban roadways: Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Int. J.Transp. Sci. Technol. 2020;9:116–27.

Moomen M, Rezapour M, Ksaibati K. An investigation of influential factors of downgrade truck crashes: A logistic regression approach. J. Traffic Transp. Eng. 2019;6(2):185-95.

Behnood A, Mannering F. Time-of-day variations and temporal instability of factors affecting injury severities in large-truck crashes. Anal. Methods Accid. Res. 2019;23: doi:10.1016/j.amar. 2019.100102.

Wang Y, Prato CG. Determinants of injury severity for truck crashes on mountain expressways in China: A case-study with a partial proportional odds model. Saf Sci. 2019;117:100-07.

Ouedraogo NH, Eustace D, Qumsiyeh M, Appiah-Kubi P. Analysis of Safety Impact of Raising Trucks’ Speed Limit on Rural Freeways in Ohio. International Conference on Transportation and Development. 2020;Aug 31:132-45.

Uddin M, Huynh N. Injury severity analysis of truck-involved crashes under different weather conditions. Accid Anal Prev. 2020;141: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2020.105529.

Azimi G, Rahimi A, Asgari H, Jin X. Severity analysis for large truck rollover crashes using a random parameter ordered logit model. Accid Anal Prev. 2020;135: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2019.105355.

Liu P, Fan W. Analyzing injury severity of rear-end crashes involving large trucks using a mixed logit model: A case study in North Carolina. J. Transp. Saf. Secur. 2020;26: doi.org/10.1080/ 19439962.2020.1812784.

Li J, Liu J, Liu P, Qi Y. Analysis of factors contributing to the severity of large truck crashes. Entropy. 2020;11: doi:org/10.3390/e22111191.

Haq MT, Zlatkovic M, Ksaibati K. Investigating occupant injury severity of truck-involved crashes based on vehicle types on a mountainous freeway: A hierarchical Bayesian random intercept approach. Accid Anal Prev. 2020;144: doi:10.1016/j.aap.2020.105654.

Behnood A, Al-Bdairi NS. Determinant of injury severities in large truck crashes: A weekly instability analysis. Saf Sci. 2020;131: doi:org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104911.

Rahimi E, Shamshiripour A, Samimi A, Mohammadian AK. Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a developing country. Accid Anal Prev. 2020;137: doi:org/10.1016/ j.aap.2020.105444.

Yuan Y, Yang M, Guo Y, Rasouli S, Gan Z, Ren Y. Risk factors associated with truck-involved fatal crash severity: Analyzing their impact for different groups of truck drivers. J Safety Res. 2021;76:154-65.

Hosseinzadeh A, Moeinaddini A, Ghasemzadeh A. Investigating factors affecting severity of large truck-involved crashes: Comparison of the SVM and random parameter logit model. J Safety Res. 2021;77:151-60.

Safari M, Alizadeh SS, Bazargani HS, Aliashrafi A, Maleki A, Moshashaei P, Shakerkhatibi M. A comprehensive review on risk factors affecting the crash severity. Iran J Health Saf Environ. 2020;6(4):1366-76.

Safari M, Alizadeh SS, Bazargani HS, Aliashrafi A, Shakerkhatibi M, Moshashaei P. The priority setting of factors affecting a crash severity using the Analytic Network Process. J Inj Violence Res. 2020;12(1):11-19.

WHO. Global status report on road safety 2018. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/road-traffic-injuries.

Hallmark S, Knapp K, Thomas G, Smith D. Temporary speed hump impact evaluation. 2002.

De Pauw E, Daniels S, Brijs T, Hermans E, Wets G. An evaluation of the traffic safety effect of fixed speed cameras. Saf Sci. 2014;62:168-74.

Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment e-ISSN: :2345-5535 Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran