Removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by a non-conventional and low cost agricultural waste: adsorption on ash of Aloe Vera plant

Mohammad Malakootian, Hossein Jafari Mansoorian, Ahmad Reza Yari


Dyes are an important class of pollutants and disposal of them in precious water resources must be avoided. Among various methods adsorption occupies a prominent place in dye removal. The aim of this study is to evaluate adsorption of dye Reactive Red 198 and Blue 19 (RR-198 & RB-19 (on to Aloe Vera plant ash from aqueous solutions.
In this research Aloe Vera ash was prepared at laboratory conditions and then after shredding, screened by ASTM standard sieve with 60 -200 mesh sizes and the effects of pH (3-12), adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g/L), contact time (10-60 min), initial dye concentration (10-160 mg/L) and temperature were investigated in the experiment. In different samples Dye concentration was measured by spectrophotometer at 592 nm and 520 nm wavelength for RR198 and RB19 respectively. Also the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were determined in order to describe the relations between the colored solutions and the adsorbent.
The results of this study showed that acidic conditions were more conducive to enhance the hydrolysis rate than basic ones as the decomposition was optimum at pH 3. The adsorption rate of RR-198 and RB-19 dyes was increased by increasing of initial dye concentration, increasing of adsorbent dose in 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L. Dye solution was decolorized in a relatively short time (20 min). The efficiencies for RR-198 and RB- 19 reactive dyes were 82.68% and 90.42% respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) has been found to be 80.152 mg/g for RR-198 reactive dye and 88.452 mg/g for Blue 19 reactive dye. Adsorption isotherms were examined by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm that finally showed the Freundlich multilayer isotherm has better accordance with dates.
The results indicate that Aloe Vera ash plant as a natural and inexpensive adsorbent is a suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of textile dyes.


Agricultural waste, Aloe Vera leaves ash, Dye RR-198 & RB-19, Adsorption Isotherms

Full Text:



Alver E, and Metin AÜ. Anionic dye removal from aqueous solutions using modified zeolit Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies. CHEM ENG J. 2012; 200–202: 59-67

Amin NK. Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith. Desalination. 2008; 223(1): 152-161

Amini M, Arami M, Mahmoodi NM, and Akbari A. Dye removal from colored textile wastewater using acrylic grafted nanomembrane. Desalination, 2011; 267(1): 107-113

Bellir K, Bouziane IS, Boutamine Z, Lehocine MB, and Meniai AH. Sorption Study of a Basic Dye “Gentian Violet” from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Bentonite. ENERG Proced. 2012; 18: 924-933

Demirbas A. Agricultural based activated carbons for the removal of dyes from solutions: A review. J HAZARD MATER. 2009; 167(1): 1-9

Dizge N, Aydiner C, Demirbas E, Kobya M, and Kara S. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. J HAZARD MATER. 2008; 150(3): 737-746

El-Ashtoukhy ESZ, and Amin NK. Removal of acid green dye 50 from wastewater by anodic oxidation and electrocoagulation-A comparative study. J HAZARD MATER, 2010; 179(1): 113-119.

Basava Rao VV, and Ram Mohan Rao S. Adsorption studies on treatment of textile dyeing industrial effluent by flyash. CHEM ENG J. 2006; 116(1): 77-84

Charumathi D and DasN. Packed bed column studies for the removal of synthetic dyes from textile wastewater using immobilised dead C. tropicalis. Desalination, 2012; 285: 22-30

Chen D, Li Y, Zhang J, Li W, Zhou J, Shao L, and Qian G. Efficient removal of dyes by a novel magnetic Fe3O4/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent from heavy metal wastewater. J HAZARD MATER. 2012;243: 152-160

Raffiea Baseri J, Palanisamy P N, and Sivakumar P. Comparative Studies of the Adsorption of Direct Dye on Activated Carbon and Conducting Polymer Composite. J Chem. 2012; 9(3): 1122-34

Fanchiang JM, and Tseng DH. Degradation of anthraquinone dye C.I. Reactive Blue 19 in aqueous solution by ozonation. Chemosphere. 2009;77(2) 214-21

Gao BY, Wang Y, Yue QY, Wei JC, and Li Q. Color removal from simulated dye water and actual textile wastewater using a composite coagulant prepared by ployferric chloride and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride. SEP PURIF TECHNOL. 2007;54(2): 157-63

Gök Ö, Özcan AS, and Özcan A. Adsorption behavior of a textile dye of Reactive Blue 19 from aqueous solutions onto modified bentonite. APPL SURF SCI. 2010; 256(17): 5439-43

Golder AK, Samanta AN, and Ray S. Anionic reactive dye removal from aqueous solution using a new adsorbent—Sludge generated in removal of heavy metal by electrocoagulation. CHEM ENG J. 2006; 122(1): 107-15

Greluk M, and Hubicki Z. Kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of Reactive Black 5 removal by acid acrylic resins. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2010; 162(3): 919-26

Gupta VK and Suhas. Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal, A review. J ENVIRON MANAGE. 2009; 90(8)., 2313-42

Hameed BH. Spent tea leaves: A new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions. J HAZARD MATER. 2009; 161(2-3)., 753-59

Ray A, and Dutta Gupta S. A panoptic study of antioxidant potential of foliar gel at different harvesting regimens of Aloe vera L. Ind Crops Products. 2013; 51., 130-37

Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Ferranti A, Fanali S, Raggi MA. Determination of aloe emodin in Aloe vera extracts and commercial formulations by HPLC with tandem UV absorption and fluorescence detection. FOOD CHEM. 2011; 126(1): 387-93

Zhao HZ, Sun Y, Xu LN, Ni JR. Removal of Acid Orange 7 in simulated wastewater using a three-dimensional electrode reactor: Removal mechanisms and dye degradation pathway. Chemosphere. 2010; 78(1): 46-51

Yang Y, Nakada N, and Tanaka H. Adsorption of fullerene nC60 on activated sludge: Kinetics, equilibrium and influencing factors. CHEM ENG J. 2013; 225: 365-71

Yan H, Li H, Yang H, Li A, Cheng R. Removal of various cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using a kind of fully biodegradable magnetic composite microsphere. CHEM ENG J. 2013; 223: 402-11

Doulati Ardejani F, BadiiK, Limaee NY, Shafaei SZ, Mirhabibi AR. Adsorption of Direct Red 80 dye from aqueous solution onto almond shells: Effect of pH, initial concentration and shell type. J HAZARD MATER. 2008; 151(2-3): 730-37

Xu H, Zhang Y, Jiang Q, Reddy N, Yang Y. Biodegradable hollow zein nanoparticles for removal of reactive dyes from wastewater. J ENVIRON MANAGE. 2013; 125: 33-40.

Sulak MT, Demirbas E, and Kobya M. Removal of Astrazon Yellow 7GL from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto wheat bran. Bioresource technol., 2007:. 98(13): 2590-98

Bulut Y, Gözübenli N, and Aydın H. Equilibrium and kinetics studies for adsorption of direct blue 71 from aqueous solution by wheat shells. J. Hazard. Mater. 2007; 144(1-2): 300-06.

GongR, DingY, Li M, Yang C, Liu H, and Sun Y. Utilization of powdered peanut hull as biosorbent for removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solution. Dyes pigments, 2005; 64(3): 187-92.

Sun D, Zhang X, Wu Y, and Liu X. Adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solution on fly ash. J Hazard. mater. 2010; 181(1-3): 335-42.

Xi Y, Shen Y, Yang F, Yang G, Liu C, Zhang Z, Zhu D. Removal of azo dye from aqueous solution by a new biosorbent prepared with Aspergillus nidulans cultured in tobacco wastewater. J Taiwan Instit Chem Eng. 2013; 44(5): 815-20.

El Nemr A, Abdelwahab O, El-Sikaily A, and Khaled A. Removal of direct blue-86 from aqueous solution by new activated carbon developed from orange peel. J Hazard. Mater. 2009; 161(1): 102-10.

Shakir K, Elkafrawy AF, Ghoneimy HF, Elrab Beheir SG, Refaat M., Removal of rhodamine B (a basic dye) and thoron (an acidic dye) from dilute aqueous solutions and wastewater simulants by ion flotation. Water res. 2010; 44(5): 1449-61.

Safa Y and Bhatti HN. Biosorption of Direct Red-31 and Direct Orange-26 dyes by rice husk Application of factorial design analysis. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 2011; 89(12): 2566-74.

Greluk M, Hubicki Z. Evaluation of polystyrene anion exchange resin for removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. Res.des, 2013; 91(7): 1343-51.

Khaled A, EI-Nemr A, EI-Sikaily A, Abdelwahab O. Removal of Direct N Blue-106 from artificial textile dye effluent using activated carbon from orange peel:adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. J Hazard. mater.. 2009; 165(1-3): 100-10

Gibbs G, Tobin JM, Guibal E. Influence of chitosan preprotonation on Reactive Black 5 sorption isotherms and kinetics. Ind eng chem. Res. 2004; 43(1): 1-11.

Safa Y, Bhatti HN. Adsorptive removal of direct textile dyes by low cost agricultural waste:of factorial design analysis. Chem. Eng. J., 2011; 167(1): 35-41.

Ponnusami V, Krithika V, Madhuram R, and Srivastava SN. Biosorption of reactive dye using acid-treated rice husk: Factorial design analysis. J Hazard. Mater., .2007; 142(1-2): 397-03.

Ravikumar K, Krishnan S, Ramalingam S, and Balu K. Optimization of process variables by the application of response surface methodology for dye removal using a novel adsorbent. Dye pigments, 2007; 72(1): 66-74

Hassan SSM, Awwad NS, and Aboterika AHA. Removal of synthetic reactive dyes from textile wastewater by Sorel's cement. J Hazard. Mater., 2009; 162., 994-999.

Mansoorian HJ, Jafari AJ, Yari AR, Mahvi AH, Alizadeh M, Sahebian H. Application of Acacia tortilis Shuck as of Low-cost Adsorbent to Removal of Azo Dyes Reactive Red 198 and Blue 19 from Aqueous Solution. J Arch Hyg Sci. 2014;,3(1): 165-75.

Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment e-ISSN: :2345-5535 Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran